Here is the link for an online jeopardy game on Treaty 4 that I created.
Treaty 4 Background Information
Treaty Number: Treaty 4
Location of Treaty: Southern Saskatchewan. Treaty 4 also extends slightly into Manitoba and Alberta.
Location of Treaty signing: Fort Qu’Appelle,Saskatchewan
Date of Treaty signing: September 15th, 1874
Signatories to the Treaty: The Treaty 4 agreement was between the Crown and the Cree and Saulteaux Nations living on Treaty 4 land. According to a transcribed version of the written treaty agreement: “between Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, by Her Commissioners, the Honourable Alexander Morris, Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Manitoba and the North-West Territories; the Honourable David Laird, Minister of the Interior, and William Joseph Christie, Esquire, of Brockville, Ontario, of the one part; and the Cree, Saulteaux and other Indians, inhabitants of the territory within the limits hereinafter defined and described by their Chiefs and Headmen, chosen and named as hereinafter mentioned, of the other part” (Government of Canada, 2013, n.p.).
Provisions to the Treaty:
- Reserves of one square mile for every five persons
- Annuities of $25 for a chief, plus a coat and medal, $15 annuity per headman, $5 annuity for each person
- A suit of clothing per chief every 3 years
- Blankets and calicoes
- British Flag
- $750 worth of powder, shot, and twine per year
- 2 hoes, a spade, scythe, axe, and seed per family
- A plow and 2 harrows per 10 families
- Oxen, a bull, 4 cows
- Carpenter’s tools- 5 hand saws, five augers, a crosscut saw, a pit saw, and a grindstone per chief
- A school on the reserve
- No liquor to be allowed on the reserve
- Rights to hunting, fishing, and trapping
(Stonechild, 2006, n.p.)
Reasons for Signing the Treaty
For First Nations: The increase in settlers moving west meant a decline in buffalo population. This threated their livelihoods and way of life. Also, the increase in the spread of disease and the decline in fur prices added to the hardships experienced by First Nations peoples at this time.
For the Canadian Government: The United States’ movement of “manifest destiny” (a push to claim and settle the land wherever unsettled) put pressure on the Canadian government to settle western lands. (Office of the Treaty Commissioner, 2008, p. 14)
Game: Treaty 4 Jeopardy
Purpose: The purpose of this game is to get students acquainted with Treaty 4 information. This works as a trivia game where students can test and add to their knowledge about Treaty 4.
Connection to Treaty Education Outcomes:
|Grade||Treaty Education Outcome||Indicators|
|3||HC33: Explore the benefits that each of the parties to treaty enjoy.
|-Recognize how all Saskatchewan people are beneficiaries of treaty (e.g., sharing of natural resources, access to vast tracts of land, peaceful means of living with one another).
-Recognize that treaty benefits flow equally to all peoples in Saskatchewan living in Treaty 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 areas.
– Discuss what the benefits of treaties are for First Nations (e.g., education, health).
-Discuss what the benefits of treaties are for non-First Nations (e.g., access to land for farming).
|4||HC43 : Explore the historical reasons why people entered into treaty.
|-Examine how the disappearance of the buffalo and the loss of traditional hunting and trapping territories created a need for First Nations to enter into treaties.
– Recognize that treaties provided opportunity for newcomers to live on and share the land of what is now Saskatchewan.
|4||TPP44 : Examine the objectives of the First Nations and British Crown’s representatives in negotiating treaty.||–Examine the benefits each signatory hoped to achieve.|
|5||TPP54 : Analyze the benefits of treaties for all people in Saskatchewan from a contemporary perspective||–Identify contemporary results of Saskatchewan Treaties (e.g., urban reserves, economic development, resource sharing).|
|6||HC63 : Analyze how the movement towards the fulfillment of treaty obligations has positively affected all people in Saskatchewan.||–Examine the impact of urban reserves on livelihood (e.g., economic, social, cultural, environmental).
-Investigate how parties to treaty are utilizing the land for economic development opportunities.
|7||TR71 : Analyze to what extent each of the signatories to treaty meets their respective obligations.||-Examine how the federal government addresses the commitments made in the treaties.
-Examine how the obligations of First Nations have been met.
|8||TPP84 : Assess whether the terms of treaty have been honoured and to what extent the treaty obligations have been fulfilled.||-Represent an understanding of the concepts “Medicine Chest” and “Education”, as intended in the Treaties.
-Relate various quality of life measures from the perspectives of First Nations and non First Nations people based on the fulfillment of treaties.
|9||TPP94 : Examine the effectiveness of treaty making in addressing the circumstances of Indigenous peoples.||-Analyze the challenges Indigenous peoples face when negotiating treaties.|
|10||SI102 : Analyze the spirit and intent of Treaties and investigate the extent to which they have been fulfilled.||-Identify spirit and intent of the terms of treaty.
-Imagine and describe what our society would look like today if all treaty obligations had been completely fulfilled and what it could look like into the future (e.g., Maori influence on New Zealand institutions).
|11||HC113 : Evaluate specific treaties that have been, or currently are, in place globally to determine their effectiveness||-Conduct an inventory of the various treaties that currently exist.
– Assess the various motives for entering into treaty.
-Construct a recommendation as to the effectiveness of treaty as a means for addressing conflict (e.g., a motion, passing of a law)
|12||HC123 : Examine how treaties within contemporary society impact on individual’s lives.||-Describe the principles of treaty and understand the importance those principles play.
-Analyze responses to treaties in current federal and provincial government policies.
-Synthesize knowledge and appreciation of treaties.
- Treaty 4 Jeopardy game. Can be accessed online here.
- Computer with Internet
- A projector and screen would be good so that players can see the questions and answers.
- At least 2 players.
Directions for Game Moderator:
- Load this jeopardy game onto the computer. If possible, have it projected onto a large screen for all students to see.
- After clicking it, the URL will take you to the jeopardy game. You have the option to start a live game where you will be given a game code. Students can enter this game code and enter the game live, or you can scroll down and play a not live game.
- I recommend scrolling down and playing a game that isn’t live. This can be moderated by a teacher or student.
- Explain to students they will be playing Treaty 4 Jeopardy.
- Have students break up into teams. Two teams works best.
- One team will begin by choosing a question from one of the three categories. The team will choose the category and level of question.
- When the team has chosen their question, the moderator will click on that question and read it aloud.
- As teams hear the question read, they will raise their hands to answer it. The first team with their hand up will have the opportunity to answer first.
- The team that is answering will have however many seconds that the moderator chooses for the game, to answer the question correctly.
- If the team does not answer correctly, the other team will have an opportunity to steal. This means that they can try to answer the question correctly.
- After teams have given their answers, the moderator can click “View Answer” and show everyone the answer.
- After clicking “View Answer” the moderator can click “Scoreboard” and add the correct amount of points to whoever answered the question correctly.
- The moderator will then click “Game Board” and repeat this process.
- Whoever answers the question correctly, will get to choose the next question. If no one answers the question correctly, the same team will get to choose the question again.
- This will repeat until all of the questions have been answered. Whichever team has the most points after all of the questions have been used, wins.
Government of Canada. (2013, August 30). “Treaty Text- Treaty No. 4.” Retrieved from http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028689/1100100028690
Office of the Treaty Commissioner. (2008). Treaty Essential Learnings: We Are All Treaty People. Retrieved from https://www.horizonsd.ca/Services/SafeandCaring/Documents/TELS.pdf
Stonechild, B. (2006). “Treaty 4.” Retrieved from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/treaty_4.html